A low-lactose or entirely lactose-free diet is required if lactose is tolerated poorly or not at all. Lactose is found only in milk or dairy products. People who are lactose intolerant do not produce sufficient amounts of the enzyme lactase, which breaks down milk sugar. The ability to tolerate lactose (absorb milk sugar) varies from person to person. People can usually digest small amounts of lactose, which means that foods low in lactose and often sour milk products and matured cheeses can be consumed.
Hyla and Into dairy products can be used in a low-lactose diet.
A lactose-free diet contains little or no lactose. Lactose should be eliminated from all food ingredients and product labels should read lactose 0 g.
The diet can include dairy products that do not contain any lactose at all and long-matured cheeses (e.g. Emmental, Edam and soft cheeses made from them) in which the lactose has broken down in the maturing process.
Milk allergy is not the same as lactose intolerant. Individuals who are allergic to cow’s milk are sensitive to the proteins in milk.
All milk and milk-containing foods are eliminated from the diet of people with a milk allergy. Caution should be also be exercised with goat’s milk. Low-lactose dairy products are forbidden, as they contain milk proteins. Individuals who are particularly sensitive must also avoid butter and margarine.
The treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet, which is strict and must be continued permanently. A gluten-free diet does not contain wheat (wheat starch), rye or barley, or foods made with these. Suitable cereals are gluten-free varieties such as rice, corn, millet and buckwheat. Potato flour or gluten-free and low-protein bread flour mix can also be used in the diet. Some celiacs can tolerate oats in small amounts.
In addition to foods from the vegetable kingdom, the diet of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian includes eggs and dairy products, but no meat (or poultry) or fish.
The diet of a lacto-vegetarian includes, besides foods from the vegetable world, dairy products too. Lacto-vegetarians have also eliminated egg products from their diet.
A vegan diet includes only products from the vegetable kingdom. As a matter of principle, Vegans do not consume any animal-based products. The reasons for the diet are ethical, ecological and/or health-based. A vegan diet is not the same as raw/living food. Vegans also eat food that has been cooked.
Vegans do not eat meat in any form. Nor do they consume any other products of the animal kingdom, such as eggs, honey, milk, butter, cheese or other dairy products. Vegans do not eat foods containing meat, fish, chicken stock, gelatin or animal fats.
Animal-based ingredients that vegans do not consume include whey, casein, caseinates, lactose, rennets, gelatin, albumin and egg powder.
The immune system of an individual with an allergy overreacts. In other words the body defends itself against otherwise harmless substances. An allergic reaction appears as a variety of symptoms or syndromes affecting the respiratory membranes, skin, eyes or digestive tract.
Commonest foods causing allergies
- fish and shellfish
- cellery, peas
- strawberry, kiwi fruit, citrus fruits
- almonds and nuts
- certain additives
vl = low-lactose
l = lactose-free
g = gluten-free
v = includes garlic
k = vegetarian
ve = vegan
se = contains celery
pä = contains nuts (including nutmeg)
m = milk free
so = contains soya
[S] = Fulfils Kela’s criteria for student meal programmes